All references across the Making Sense of Sugar websites can be found below.

Global and markets:

1. World Health Organization

2. World Health Organization

3. World Health Organization 

4. World Health Organization

5. World Health Organization

6. McCance & Widdowson’s The composition of food, 7th edition

7. World Health Organization

8. World Health Organization

9. World Health Organization

10. World Health Organization

11. World Health Organization

12. World Health Organization

13. SACN (2015) Carbohydrates and Health

14. World Health Organization

15. World Health Organization

16. van Loveren (2019) Sugar Restriction for Caries Prevention: Amount and Frequency. Which Is More Important? Caries Res. 53(2):168-175

17. Twetman (2018) Prevention of dental caries as a non-communicable disease. Eur J Oral Sci 2018; 126(Suppl. 1): 19–25.

18. World Dental Federation (FDI)

19. World Health Organization

20. Bowen et al. (2018) Oral Biofilms: Pathogens, matrix and polymicrobial interactions in microenvironments. Trends Microbiol.; 26(3):229-242

21. NeuroFAST (2013)

22a. EFSA

22b. EFSA


23. Sustainable Nutrition Manual

24. The Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS)

25. Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, 2000

26. Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2015-2016, page 167

27. MDHS 2015/16

28. National Micronutrient Survey 2001

29. Illovo Sugar Africa


30. Ministry of Health, through the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition

31. Ministerio de la Presidencia – RD 1334/1999

32. UE: Reglamento Europeo 1169/2011

33. Ministry of Health, through the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition

34. Ministry of Health, through the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition

35. Ministry of Health, through the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition

36. Ministry of Health, through the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition


37. Mindo wa Maisha na Magonjwa Yasiyo ya Kuambukiza. Dalili, Athari na Kinga. Elimu kwa Jamii (Lifestyle and Non-communicable Diseases. Symptoms, Effects and Prevention. Education to the Community).

38. Food Labelling Regulations 2006

39. Food Labelling Regulations 2006 – Reference: per S. 5 I b(iv) of the Regulations.

40. Unicef

41. Tanzania Malnutrition factsheet 2016

42. Tanzania National Nutrition Survey 2018


43. NHS Choices

44. Food and Drink Federation

45. SACN (2015) Carbohydrates and Health Report, p.57, para 5.82

46. British Nutrition Foundation

47. NHS Choices

48. NHS Choices

49. Commission Regulation 1169/2011 Provision of food information to consumers

50. Department of Health technical guidance on nutrition labeling

51. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

52. NHS Choices

53. NHS Choices

54. NHS Choices

55. Health Survey for England (NHS)

56. Diabetes UK: Diabetes risk factors

57. Anderson, C. A., Curzon, M. E., Van Loveren, C. et al (2009) Sucrose and dental caries: a review of the
evidence. Obs Rev, 10 Suppl, p. 541 – 545.

58. Cottrell, R. C. (2011) Dental disease: Etiology and epidemiology in Cabballero, B., Allen, N. & Prentice, A. M.
(Eds) Encylopedia of Human Nutrition. 2nd Edition ed Kidlington, UK Elseviier Academic Press

59. Public Health England – Why 5%, p.6

60. Public Health England

61. L. Tappy; B Mittendorfer; Fructose toxicity: is the science ready for public health actions? Curr Opinion Clin
Nutr Metab Care 2012 July; 15(4) p. 357 – 361

62. British Soft Drinks Association

63. British Nutrition Foundation

64. SACN (2015) Carbohydrates and Health; p.31, para 4.5

65. SACN (2015) Carbohydrates and Health; p.4, S.16

66. SACN (2015) Carbohydrates and Health; p.4, S.17 & S.18

67. Dept of Health (1991) Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom no. 41
London: HMSO

68. UK Chief Medical Officer Report

69. NHS

70. Diabetes UK


71. Republic of Zambia

72. Scaling Up Nutrition

73. Zambia Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14 

74. Zambia Demographic and Health Survey 2018

75. Reducing Malnutrition in Zambia: Estimates to Support Nutrition Advocacy—Zambia Nutrition PROFILES 2017

Latin America:

76. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

77. The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

78. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations

79. World Health Organisation – Global Health Observatory